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双语新闻丨人造肉概念席卷北美 巨大商机推动新业态

文章出处:菲达娱乐开户 发表时间:2019-05-20 17:37
双语新闻丨人造肉概念席卷北美 巨大商机推动新业态

Impossible Foods, Beyond Meat

and the growth of the meatless meat market

美国当地时间5月14日,“人造肉”领域领军企业Impossible Foods发布公告宣布获得3亿美元E轮融资,未来将招募更多员工并扩充其生产线。

根据公告,此轮融资由淡马锡与维港投资领投,参与投资的除蓝筹股东外,还包括NBA球星保罗?乔治、美国说唱歌手JAY-Z等个人投资者。本轮融资是Impossible Foods创建以来的第五轮融资。目前,这家年轻的公司已累计融资7.5亿美元,投资者包括比尔?盖茨、谷歌、瑞银集团等。

无独有偶,人造肉Beyond Meat公司于本月初在纳斯达克上市首日便暴涨163%,创造了近20年来美股IPO最佳表现,引爆美国境内“人造肉”概念股,随后又有多个“人造肉”龙头股涨停。

 

Ethan Brown, founder and CEO of Beyond Meat, rings the opening bell with company executives and guests during the company's IPO at the Nasdaq Market site in New York, US, May 2, 2019. (Photo: VCG)

Impossible Foods, a leading company in the cultured meat industry, announced on May 14 that it received $300 million in Series E funding, which would help recruit more employees and expand production lines.

Coincidentally, Beyond Meat shares soared 163% on the first day of being listed in NASDAQ, exerting great influence on domestic cultured meat concept stocks. It was also followed by some leading stocks in the cultured meat industry daily limit.

风靡北美的“人造肉”,它到底是什么?是如何制作的?发展现状以及未来发展前景如何?今天,就让小编来带你一探究竟:

The concept of cultured meat has gained popularity all over the world in recent years. This article will provide you a deep insight into it, elaborating the current development and prospects of this industry, as well as exploring the reasons beyond its popularity.

 

Photo: Bloomberg

A timeline of its development

人造肉这一概念最早由美国人杰森·马修尼在2000年左右提出,他发表了许多与培养肉有关的研究,并创建了世界上第一个非盈利、致力于研究试管培养肉制品研究的组织:新收获(New Harvest)。

2008年,动物权益保护组织PETA(动物伦理联合会)拿出100万美元做奖金,用于奖励2012年第一个将人造鸡肉投入市场的公司。

2013年,荷兰马斯特里赫特大学教授马克?波斯特率先成功用试管培育出牛肉并制成汉堡。波斯特的人造牛肉是由从牛肌肉中提取的干细胞培育而成,培育过程采用了培养人体组织和器官的医疗技术,售价高达32万美元。

此后,人造肉概念开始获得媒体和公众的广泛关注,但当时还尚未实现其商业化。

The concept of cultured meat was popularized by Jason Matheny in the early 2000s after co-authoring a seminal paper on cultured meat production and creating New Harvest, the world's first non-profit organization dedicated to supporting in vitro meat research.

In 2008, PETA offered a $1 million prize to the first company that could bring lab-grown chicken meat to market. The prize money coincided with dozens of laboratories around the world taking on the challenge of cultured meat.

In 2013, Mark Post, a professor at Maastricht University, was the first to showcase a proof-of-concept for cultured meat by creating the first burger patty grown directly from cells. Since then, several cultured meat prototypes have gained media attention, but it has not yet been commercialized.

 

Photo: Digital Trends

2019年4月,波斯特在接受美国媒体采访时说道,“当我做出第一个人造肉汉堡包时,并没有很多人研究人造肉。但是现在,有超过30家公司致力于将这项技术商业化。泰森、嘉吉和贝尔等大型肉类公司及谢尔盖·布林、比尔·盖茨和理查德·布兰森等著名投资人都对此行业有所投资。”

“When I presented the first cultured hamburger, I wasn’t aware of anyone working on cultured meat,” Post told Digital Trends in April 2019. “Now, there are over 30 companies working on commercializing this technology. The big meat companies like Tyson, Cargill and Bell Food Group have invested, as well as famous investors like Sergey Brin, Bill Gates, and Richard Branson.”Photo: Digital Trends

Why does it gain popularity?

到底为什么人造肉让投资人趋之若鹜?

推动全球人造肉市场增长的主要驱动因素有很多。其中,全球范围内不断增长的肉类消费、细胞培养技术的进步以及市场中涌现的大量商业化投资都是这一行业的“背后推手”。

根据联合国粮食及农业组织的数据显示,人类未来对肉类的需求预计会增加近一倍,世界将在不久的将来面临严重的粮食短缺问题。

据英国广播公司BBC报道,为了满足人类的食肉需求,全球每年要宰杀700亿只动物,饲养这些动物也消耗大量的资源:全球约70%的农业用地被用来饲养动物,60%左右的谷物都被养殖的动物消耗。

Global increases in meat consumption

Major driving factors for the growth of the global cultured meat market include global increases in meat consumption, advancements in cell culture technology and surging investments for the commercial development of synthetic meat.

The world will face critical food shortages in the near future as demand for meat is expected to increase by more than two-thirds, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

According to BBC, 70 billion animals are killed every year to meet human’s meat consumption, and raising these animals also consumes a lot of resources. For example, about 70% of the world's agricultural land is used to raise animals, and about 60% of the grain is eaten by farmed animals.

 

Photo:Xinhua

畜禽饲养对环境也造成了很大压力。联合国的报告称,到2030年,畜禽饲养业产生的温室气体将占全球温室气体排放的一半。

动物饲养、清洁和屠宰都要耗掉大量的淡水,工业化养殖耗水量更大。与此同时,农药会流进天然水道,破坏栖息地和野生动物。有学者做过统计,目前全球淡水用量的1/4以上被用于养殖动物。工业化养殖的猪所消耗的淡水比散养的要多50%。人造肉不仅可以减少温室气体排放,还可以减少95%以上的水和土地利用。

A need for environmental protection

Livestock production also adds huge pressure on the environment. According to the UN report, greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production will account for half of global emissions by 2030.

Animal breeding, cleaning and slaughter consume huge amount of fresh water, especially for industrial farming. Meanwhile, the toxins used in farming can run off into natural waterways, destroying habitats and wildlife in the process. Some scholars have studied that more than a quarter of the world's fresh water consumption is currently used for farming animals. The pigs produced by industrial farming consume more than 50% of the fresh water per head than the free-range pigs.

The shift to cultured meat could not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also decrease significantly the use of water and land by over 95%.

 

Photo: Food Navigator

此外,人们对健康、优质和安全肉类产品的需求在不断增加,人们在期待有利于环境可持续和经济发展的合成肉类产品。这些因素都推动了全球人造肉市场的蓬勃发展。

荷兰人造肉公司Meatable首席技术官达安·路宁称,“人造肉将改变世界。它将改变我们对传统肉类的看法,改变我们对食品生产方式、生产类型、生产地点以及对肉类的质量、质地、味道和营养的需求的认知。”

In addition, secondary factors such as the increasing demand for healthy, high-quality and safe meat products along with demands for environmentally sustainable and economically sound synthetic meat production are also driving the global synthetic(cultured) meat market during the forecast period.

“Cultured meat is going to change the world,” said Daan Luining. Having worked in the development of the first cultured burger, he’s now CTO of Meatable, a Dutch cultured meat company. “It’s going to change how we view meat, how food is produced, what type of food is being produced, where it’s going to be produced, and what people will demand of it — on quality, on texture, on taste, on nutrients.

 

Photo: Digital Trends

人造肉 “出海”

创立于2011年的美国公司Impossible Foods,主要产品为植物原料制成的“肉制品”和“奶制品”。目前,该公司产品在美国、新加坡、中国香港、中国澳门的7000多家餐馆中均有销售。

今年4月,美国快餐品牌红罗宾(Red Robin)将“不可能的汉堡”纳入全美570家连锁店的菜单,而另一快餐行业巨头汉堡王也宣布在美国密苏里州圣路易斯及其周边地区的59家商店推出由Impossible Foods制作的“不可能的皇堡”(The Impossible Whopper)。汉堡王有意在2019年年底将该产品推广至全美7200家连锁店。

Founded in 2011, the American company Impossible Foods mainly provides meat products and dairy products that are made from plant materials. Its products are sold in more than 7,000 restaurants in the US, Singapore, Hong Kong, China and Macau.

In April this year, Red Robin, an American fast food brand put "impossible burgers" into the menu of 570 chain stores across the United States. Meanwhile, Burger King, another fast food giant, also promoted “The Impossible Whopper” made by Impossible Foods in 59 stores in St. Louis, Missouri and its surrounding areas. It also intends to promote the product to 7,200 chain stores nationwide by the end of 2019.

人造肉技术,仍在探索

Impossible Foods,Beyond Meat和波斯特培育的牛肉,Meatable采用了完全不同的材料和技术来生产人造肉。

Impossible Foods 主打用“植物蛋白”做成的牛绞肉产品,以织纹小麦蛋白、椰子油、土豆和大豆血红蛋白(heme)制成。其中,织纹小麦蛋白可以赋予产品真实的牛肉口感;而大豆血红蛋白的萃取则是一种存在于所有活细胞中的带氧含铁化合物,可以使肉呈粉红色,并将脂肪酸转化为带有“血腥风味”的分子。

因此,以植物蛋白肉制品技术为主的Impossible Foods,Beyond Meat旗下的人造肉产品已相对成熟,能够实现较大规模的生产。

而波斯特和Meatbale公司则通过动物细胞来培育出人造肉,目前还面临着不少技术障碍且造价不菲。波斯特表示,如何最大限度地利用细胞的增殖能力、如何优化肌肉和脂肪组织的分化都是人造肉行业现存的挑战。另一方敏,如何降低规模化生产的成本,也是生产者需要迈过的一大门槛。

Though regarded as the future, there are still significant challenges which must be solved for lab-grown meat.

On the science front, Mark Post said that there remain challenges around maximizing the proliferative capacity of the cells used, and optimizing their differentiation into muscle and fat tissue. Then there’s the issue of scaling, which requires the designing of a bioreactor-based large scale production system for mammalian cells, among other challenges. This scaling must also be done at a reasonable cost, if lab-grown meat is ever going to be a viable choice for most consumers.

Sources: Labiotech, Digital Trends, the Guardian, the Paper, 瞭望智库

Compiled by Zhao Zhengyu


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